By: Alycia Rudenauer

Deciduous Forest
Deciduous Forest
Deciduous Forest
Deciduous Forest

Introduction:
Deciduous forests are located mostly in the eastern half of North America and the middle of Europe. Some of the major places that they are found in are Asia, southwest Russia, Japan and eastern China. However, deciduous forests can also be found in southern Chile, New Zealand, southeastern Australia and on the middle east coast of Paraguay. Types of trees that are found in these forests are oak, lime, beech, birch and northern arrowwood.
(T., Connie, 2000)



Sunlight:
Deciduous forests don’t receive much sunlight because of their dense canopies. However, through cracks in the canopy, streaks of sunlight do come through and reach the forest floor. This sunlight helps the plants in each of the four, or sometimes five, layers of the forest to grow.
(Earth Floor, 2004)
Deciduous wood forest and sunlight
Deciduous wood forest and sunlight



Climate:
The deciduous forest biome is located between the polar regions and the tropics. The warm and cold air that comes from both of these places is what causes the change of climate in this biome. The precipitation that deciduous forests receive ranges from 30 to 60 inches throughout the year. The average temperature is 50 degrees F. There are four definite seasons in a deciduous forest; winter, spring, summer and fall. Winters are cold and summers are hot. Throughout the winter months, there isn’t a lot of water to keep the leaves of some plants alive. This causes the leaves of some plants to fall off and then grow back in the spring. This is why it's called a deciduous forest because deciduous means falling off or out during a certain season.
(T., Connie, 2000)
(Valentine, Wald, Wydra,)


external image precip.gif
Monthly Temperatures - graph
Monthly Temperatures - graph



Plants:
Deciduous forests have five layers. The first layer is the canopy which is the highest layer. It consists of the tallest trees in the forest and their branches covered in leaves. The canopy provides shade for everything below it. The next layer is the understory which is made up of smaller trees such as flowering dogwood, redbud and sassa fras. Young saplings try to compete for a spot in the canopy. Below the understory is the layer of shrubs. These shrubs create a dense thicket that can reach up to 2 meters above the ground. The fourth layer is the herb layer which is very close to the forest floor. It consists of herbs such as ferns, grasses and wild flowers. The fifth and last layer is the ground layer. In the spring time, wild flowers in the herb layer cover the forest floor. Then later shrubs bloom and the trees unfold their leaves. In autumn, the trees shed their leaves and this cycle just keeps repeating throughout the year.
(Fink Martin, 2000)
Plants, fungi and seeds of the deciduous forest floor
Plants, fungi and seeds of the deciduous forest floor





The American Black Bear:
The American Black Bear is an animal that inhabits the deciduous forest biome. In the wild, or in the forest, American black bears can survive up to 25 years. It can eat up to 30 pounds of food a week and hibernate anywhere from 4 to 7 months. Throughout this time, they save energy and lose weight. In the food pyramid and food chain, the black bear is at the top as one of the large predators. It is also an omnivore and eats the other smaller animals that live in the deciduous forest. These animals include foxes, birds, deer, insects and many other animals as well.

(D. Moore, pgs. 74 and 75)



external image dec-chain.gif
external image dec-py.gif

Work Cited:

"Biomes: Deciduous Forests." 1 Mar. 2007. Online video clip. YouTube. 4 Mar. 2008
<youtube.com/watch?v=59idSglHNCA>.

"Deciduous Forest Biome." World Builders. 23 May 2007. 4 Mar. 2008 http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/deciduous/decfor.html.
(Food web and food pyramid)

"Earth Floor: Biomes." Earth Floor. 2004. Wheeling Jesuit University. 4 Mar. 2008 http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/dforest.html.

Fink Martin, Patricia. Woods and Forests. Danbury, CT: Franklin Watts, 2000.

Greenaway, Frank. "Mushrooms and Other Fungi." Dk Images. 2 Mar. 2008 <http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Plants/Fungi-Monera-Protista/Mushrooms-and-other-Fungi/Agarics/Unidentified/Unidentified-3.html>.

Stoltze, and Schraer. Biology: the Study of Life. 5th ed. 1993. Unit I - Ecology, Topic 2 - Biomes. 4 Mar. 2008 <http://www.chs.k12.nf.ca/science/b3201/WebCT-Copy/units/unit1-02.htm>.
(Two graphs)

T., Connie. "Deciduous Forest." Online Images. 5 Nov. 2000. Blue Planet Biomes. 2 Mar. 2008 <http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_forest.htm>.

Wegner. "Deciduous wood forest and sunlight." Online Image. Jupiter Images. 4 Mar. 2008
<http://www.jupiterimages.com/popup2.aspx?navigationSubType=itemdetails&itemID=22578155>.